Case History

Matrix Camera

The camera is an optoelectronic device capable of producing two-dimensional image of the framed scene. The cameras used today in the industrial environment are constituted by a solid-state sensor, that is mediated with a silicon chip. The most popular technologies are those of the CCD (Charge-Couple Devices) and CMOS (Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor).

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Linear Camera

The linear camera produces an image formed by a single line of pixels. The complete image is built on board of the computer, using the relative movement between the object and the camera. The object movement is usually synchronized through an encoder.

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A smart camera is a system in which the digitizing and image processing components are enclosed in a single container. The term is usually associated with the devices used in machine vision applications.

This architecture is an alternative to other systems in which the components reside in different devices such as for example those based on cameras, frame grabber and PC.

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All the colors in the visible spectrum 350-780nm can be represented by summing the three components of the three RGB primary colors (Red, Green, Blue). This property is called additive color properties. The triad of RGB information is also called RGB color space, defined by a cube in which the edge at the lower left represents the black and the one at the upper right the white.In the field of image processing RGB space is used to capture and process images. The best color cameras contain three independent sensors able to detect each of the three components.


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The camera converts a three dimensions real-world scene (3D) in a two dimensions plane (2D) in which the third dimension is "flattened". In the field of machine vision, 2D systems are the most used and they are appropriate when the information on the third dimension is irrelevant for the purpose of control required.

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In the case where the vision system detects also the information on the third dimension we talk about 3D systems. During the 3D image processing we use the information about the three coordinates (x, y, z)  points of the scene, so as to obtain the position and the orientation in space.
The techniques of image capture in 3D are different and complementary, they can for example be based on laser triangulation, stereoscophy or homography, the light time of flight (Time Of Flight, TOF).
Image processing normally requires a high computing power because of the large amount of data contained in the images. In some cases, however, the information may be the result of 2D images, and then processed with the same image processing algorithms.
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